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Architectural Styles

Architectural styles classify architecture in terms of form, techniques, materials, time period, region, etc. It overlaps with, and emerges from the study of the evolution and history of architecture. In architectural history, the study of Gothic architecture, for instance, would include all aspects of the cultural context that went into the design and construction of these structures. Architectural style is a way of classifying architecture that gives emphasis to characteristic features of design, leading to a terminology such as Gothic “style”.

The Victoria and Albert Museum maintains an interactive online microsite with an introductory overview[1] of ten architectural styles grouped in four clusters:

Modern, High-Tech and Postmodern
East Asian, South Asian and Spanish Islamic
Gothic and Gothic Revival
Classical and Classical Revival.

Style Timeline
Neolithic architecture 10,000 BC-3000 BC
Sumerian architecture 5300 BC-2000 BC
Phoenician architecture 3,000 BC-500 AD
Ancient Egyptian architecture 3000 BC-373 AD
Classical architecture 600 BC-323 AD
Ancient Greek architecture 776 BC-265 BC
Roman architecture 753 BC–663 AD
Herodian architecture 37 BC-4 BC Judea
Architecture of Armenia (IVe s – XVIe s)
Merovingian architecture 400s-700s France and Germany
Anglo-Saxon architecture 450s-1066 England and Wales
Byzantine architecture 527 (Sofia)-1520
Islamic Architecture 691-present
Moorish architecture c.700s-1492 Western Europe, Northern Africa
Iranian architecture, c.700s-present Persia
Ottoman architecture c.1300-1918 Turkey
Pre-Romanesque architecture c.700-1000 Western Europe
Carolingian architecture 780s-800s France and Germany
Repoblación architecture 880s-1000s Spain
Ottonian architecture 950s-1050s Germany
Russian architecture 989-1700s
Romanesque architecture 1000-1300
Norman architecture 1074-1250
Gothic architecture
Early English Period c.1190—c.1250
Decorated Period c.1290–c.1350
Perpendicular Period c.1350–c.1550
Rayonnant Gothic 1240-c.1350, France, Germany, Central Europe
Flamboyant Gothic 1400-1500, Spain, France, Portugal
Brick Gothic c.1350–c.1400
Isabelline Gothic 1474-1505 (reign) Spain
Manueline 1495-1521 (reign) Portugal & colonies
Mudéjar Style c.1300-1600s Spain
Renaissance architecture c.1425-1600 Western Europe, American colonies
Tudor style architecture 1485–1603
Spanish Colonial style 1520s–c.1550
Herrerian 1550-1650 Spain & colonies
Plateresque c.1490-1600 Spain & colonies, Low Countries,
Palladian architecture 1516-1580
Dutch Colonial 1615-1674 (Treaty of Westminster) New England
Chilota architecture 1600–present Chiloé and southern Chile
Baroque architecture c.1600-1750 Western Europe, the Americas
Churrigueresque, 1660s-1750s. Spain and the New World
English Baroque 1666 (Great Fire)–1713 (Treaty of Utrecht)
Spanish Baroque c.1600-1760
Bethazahel Baroque 1669 (reign) – 1723
Sicilian Baroque 1693 earthquake–c.1745
Ukrainian Baroque late 1600-1800s
French Baroque c.1650-1789
Dutch Baroque architecture c.1650-1700
Rococo c.1720-1789 France, Germany, Spain, Italy
Ukrainian Baroque late 1600-1800s
Neoclassical architecture c.1715-1820
Georgian architecture 1720-1840s UK & USA
American colonial architecture 1720-1780s USA
Pombaline style 1755 earthquake-c.1860 Portugal
Adam style 1770 UK
Federal architecture 1780-1830 USA
Empire (style) 1804-1814, 1870 revival
Neo-palladian architecture:
Jeffersonian architecture 1790s-1830s Virginia, USA
American Empire (style) 1810
Gothic Revival architecture 1760s–today
Jeffersonian architecture 1790s-1830s Virginia, USA
Florida cracker architecture c.1800–present Florida, USA
Italianate 1802
Egyptian Revival architecture 1809–1820s, 1840s, 1920s
Biedermeier 1815–1848
Russian Revival 1826-1917, 1990s-present
Tudorbethan architecture 1835–1885
Victorian architecture 1837 and 1901 UK
See also San Francisco architecture
Jacobethan 1838
Carpenter Gothic USA and Canada 1840s on
Queenslander (architecture) 1840s–1960s
Australian architectural styles
Romanesque Revival architecture 1840–1900 USA
Neo-Manueline 1840s-1910s Portugal & Brazil
Neo-Mudéjar 1880s-1920s Spain, Portugal, Bosnia, California
Neo-Grec 1848 and 1865
Adirondack Architecture 1850s New York, USA
Bristol Byzantine 1850-1880
Second Empire 1865 and 1880
Queen Anne Style architecture 1870–1910s England & USA
Stick Style 1879-1905 New England
Eastlake Style 1879-1905 New England
Shingle Style 1879-1905 New England
National Park Service Rustic 1872–present USA
Chicago school (architecture) 1880s and 1890 USA
Canadian Chateau 1880s-1920s, Canada
Neo-Byzantine architecture 1882–1920s American
Art Nouveau/Jugendstil c. 1885–1910
Modernisme 1888-1911 Catalonian Art Nouveau
Vienna Secession 1897-c. 1905 Austrian Art Nouveau
American Craftsman 1890s–1930 USA, California & east
Richardsonian Romanesque 1880s USA
City Beautiful movement 1890–1900s USA
Colonial Revival architecture 1890s–1915
Dutch Colonial Revival c.1900 New England
Mission Revival Style architecture 1894-1936
American Foursquare mid. 1890s-late 1930s USA
Functionalism c.1900-1930s Europe & USA
Danish Functionalism 1960s Denmark
Pueblo style 1898-1990s
Edwardian Era 1901-1910 Uk
Prairie Style 1900–1917 USA
Heliopolis style 1905–c.1935 Egypt
Futurist architecture 1909 Europe
Expressionist architecture 1910–c.1924
Amsterdam School 1912–1924 Netherlands
Spanish Colonial Revival style 1915–1940 USA
Bauhaus 1919–1930s
Mediterranean Revival Style 1920s–1930s USA
Art Deco 1925–1940s Europe & USA
List of Art Deco architecture
Constructivism 1925–1932 USSR
Modern movement 1927–1960s
International style (architecture) 1930–present Europe & USA
Postconstructivism 1930–1935 USSR
Streamline Moderne 1930–1937
Nazi architecture 1933-1944 Germany
Stalinist architecture 1933–1955 USSR
Usonian 1936–1940s USA
Soft Portuguese style 1940-1955 Portugal & colonies
Ranch-style 1940s-1970s USA
New towns 1946-1968 United Kingdom
Mid-century modern 1950s California, etc.
Googie architecture 1950s USA
Brutalist architecture 1950s–1970s
Structuralism (architecture) 1950s-1970s
Metabolist Movement 1959 Japan
Arcology 1970s-present
Structural Expressionism 1980s-present
Postmodern architecture 1980s
Deconstructivism 1982–present
Memphis Group 1981-1988
Blobitecture 2003–present
Interactive architecture 2000–present

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Fungi Could Be The Next Big Building Material

At an organic farm just outside Monterey, Calif., a super-eco building material is growing in dozens of darkened shipping containers. The farm is named Far West Fungi, and its rusting containers are full of all sorts of mushrooms–shiitake, reishi and pom-pom, to name a few. But Philip Ross, an artist, an inventor and a seriously obsessed amateur mycologist, isn’t interested in the fancy caps we like to eat. What he’s after are the fungi’s thin, white rootlike fibers. Underground, they form a vast network called a mycelium. Far West Fungi’s dirt-free hothouses pack in each mycelium so densely that it forms a mass of bright white spongy matter.

Mycelium doesn’t taste very good, but once it’s dried, it has some remarkable properties. It’s nontoxic, fireproof and mold- and water-resistant, and it traps more heat than fiberglass insulation. It’s also stronger, pound for pound, than concrete. In December, Ross completed what is believed to be the first structure made entirely of mushroom. (Sorry, the homes in the fictional Smurf village don’t count.) The 500 bricks he grew at Far West Fungi were so sturdy that he destroyed many a metal file and saw blade in shaping the ‘shrooms into an archway 6 ft. (1.8 m) high and 6 ft. wide. Dubbed Mycotectural Alpha, it is currently on display at a gallery in Germany.

Nutty as “mycotecture” sounds, Ross may be onto something bigger than an art project. A promising start-up named Ecovative is building a 10,000-sq.-ft. (about 930 sq m) myco-factory in Green Island, N.Y. “We see this as a whole new material, a woodlike equivalent to plastic,” says CEO Eben Bayer. The three-year-old company has been awarded grants from the EPA and the National Science Foundation, as well as the Department of Agriculture–because its mushrooms feast on empty seed husks from rice or cotton. “You can’t even feed it to animals,” says Bayer of this kind of agricultural waste. “It’s basically trash.”

After the husks are cooked, sprayed with water and myco-vitamins and seeded with mushroom spores, the mixture is poured into a mold of the desired shape and left to grow in a dark warehouse. A week or two later, the finished product is popped out and the material rendered biologically inert. The company’s first product, a green alternative to Styrofoam, is taking on the packaging industry. Called Ecocradle, it is set to be shipped around a yet-to-be-disclosed consumer item this spring.

One of the beauties of Ecocradle is that unlike Styrofoam–which is hard to recycle, let alone biodegrade–this myco-material can easily serve as mulch in your garden. Ecovative’s next product, Greensulate, will begin targeting the home-insulation market sometime next year. And according to Bayer’s engineering tests, densely packed mycelium is strong enough to be used in place of wooden beams. “It’s not so far-out,” he says of Ross’s art house. So could Bayer see himself growing a mushroom house and living in it? “Well”–he hesitates–“maybe we’d start with a doghouse.”

Read more:,9171,1957474,00.html#ixzz0eUrzlvjt

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The Soft and Hairy House

The Eisaku Ushida and Kathryn Findlay studio is a husband-and-wife partnership founded in 1988 as a bicultural (Japan and Scotland) collaboration and best known for its work dealing with architecture as a reflection of regional topography and the psychological interface between habitat, technology, and nature.

Unlike many green architects, who see their buildings as structure imposed on the environment — with a certain deference to ecology in terms of energy conservation — Ushida-Findlay’s philosophy proposes their work as “the taming of technology, not the taming of nature.”

They see the combined physical, aesthetic, and scientific role of buildings as a harmony of nature’s forces capable of offering a combination of protective retreat from the city and a visual, technical, and atmospheric absorption of the immediate urban context.

Through formal means, theoretical propositions, and an attitude toward garden space reminiscent of the Japanese concept of “borrowed scenery,” the partnership has created a vision of the house as a microcosm of the city.

By observing that broader social fluctuations outside have an influence on their more compressed counterparts inside, the intimate spaces of residence can be seen as protective capsules, while the more public areas — like the living room and kitchen — can be tied more directly to the cityscape.

Conventional urban planners tend to see buildings exclusively from the exterior and as nothing more than physical intrusions conflicting with their ambitions for uninterrupted traffic flow.

This article is excerpted from Green Architecture by James Wines, with permission of the publisher, Taschen Books.



Renzo Piano

Renzo Piano (born 14 September, 1937) is a world renowned Italian architect and recipient of the Pritzker Architecture Prize, AIA Gold Medal, Kyoto Prize and the Sonning Prize. One admirer said the “serenity of his best buildings can almost make you believe that we live in a civilized world”. His work also has its strong critics, to the point of infamously being called “a hodgepodge of tents, greenhouses and scaffolding.”

Piano was born in Genoa, Italy, in 1937 and maintains a home and office (Building Workshop) in the area. He was educated and subsequently taught at the Politecnico di Milano. He graduated from the University in 1964 and began working with experimental lightweight structures and basic shelters. From 1965 to 1970 he worked with Louis Kahn and with Makowsky. He worked together with Richard Rogers from 1971 to 1978; their most famous joint project is the Centre Georges Pompidou in Paris (1977). He also had a long collaboration with the engineer Peter Rice.

In 1981, Piano founded the “Renzo Piano Building Workshop”, employing a hundred people with offices in Paris, Genoa, and New York.

On 18 March, 2008, he became an honorary citizen of Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina.

Piano’s recent expansion of the Art Institute of Chicago includes a 264,000 square foot wing with 60,000 square feet of gallery space called the Modern Wing, which opens May 16, 2009. It includes a “flying carpet”, a sunscreen that hovers above the roof and a 620-foot steel bridge connecting Millennium Park to a sculpture terrace that leads into a restaurant on the wing’s third floor.

Select projects
Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center, Athens (2009-)
City Gate, Royal Opera House, Parliament of Malta, and Freedom Square, Valletta, Malta (2009/10-)
Renzo Piano Tower I & II, San Francisco, California (2006-)
Trans National Place, Boston, Massachusetts (2006-)
Whitney Museum of American Art, New York City, New York (2005-)
Isabella Stewart Gardner Museum, Boston, Massachusetts (2005-)
Sesto San Giovanni Masterplan, Milan (2004-)
Los Angeles County Museum of Art (2003-)
Modern Wing of the Art Institute of Chicago, expansion project (May 2009-)
Shard London Bridge, London

Nichols Bridgeway, Chicago, Illinois (2009)
California Academy of Sciences rebuilding, San Francisco, California (2008)
Vulcano Buono shopping mall, Nola, Italy (2007)
The New York Times Building on Eighth Avenue in Manhattan, New York City (2003-2007)
Rocca di Frassinello Winery, Gavorrano, Italy (2002-2007)
Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern, Switzerland (2006)
Morgan Library Expansion, New York, New York (2003-2006)
Cité Internationale, Lyon, France (1995-2006)
High Museum of Art Expansion, Atlanta, Georgia (2005)
Nasher Sculpture Center, Dallas,Texas (opened 2003)
Parco della Musica auditorium, Rome, Italy (2002)
Auditorium Paganini, Parma, Italy (2001)
Aurora Place, Sydney, Australia (1996-2000)
Swatch ‘Jelly Piano’ wristwatch, 1999 Summer Collection model. “My most proud work” (Piano, 2001)
Stadio San Nicola, Bari, Italy (1988-1989)
Jean-Marie Tjibaou Cultural Center, Nouméa, New Caledonia (1991-98)
Beyeler Foundation Museum, Basel, Switzerland (1997)
NEMO science museum, Amsterdam, Netherlands (1997)
Kansai International Airport, Osaka (Japan) (1987-1990)
Menil Collection, Houston, Texas (opened 1987)
Banca CIS building, Cagliari, Sardinia (1985)
IBM Travelling Pavilion
IRCAM & the Centre Georges Pompidou, Paris, France (1972-1977)

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Richard Meier

Meier was born in Newark, New Jersey. He earned a Bachelor of Architecture degree from Cornell University in 1957, worked for Skidmore, Owings and Merrill briefly in 1959, and then for Marcel Breuer for three years, prior to starting his own practice in New York in 1963. Identified as one of The New York Five in 1972, his commission of the Getty Center in Los Angeles, California catapulted his popularity among the mainstream.

Much of Meier’s work builds on the work of architects of the early to mid-20th century, especially that of Le Corbusier and, in particular, Le Corbusier’s early phase. Meier has built more using Corbusier’s ideas than anyone, including Le Corbusier himself[citation needed]. Meier expanded many ideas evident in Le Corbusier’s work, particularly the Villa Savoye and the Swiss Pavilion.

Getty Center, Los AngelesHis work also reflects the influences of other designers such as Mies Van der Rohe and, in some instances, Frank Lloyd Wright and Luis Barragán (without the colour). White has been used in many architectural landmark buildings throughout history, including cathedrals and the white-washed villages of the Mediterranean region, in Spain, southern Italy and Greece.

In 1984, Meier was awarded the Pritzker Prize, and in 2008, he won the gold medal in architecture from the Academy of Arts and Letters.

The Mayor of Rome Gianni Alemanno included in his campaign platform a promise to tear down the big travertine wall of Meier’s Ara Pacis.

Meier is also the second cousin of the architect, theorist, and fellow member of The New York Five, Peter Eisenman.

Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art
The Atheneum in New Harmony, Indiana, United States.
Museum of Television and Radio, Beverly Hills, California
Ara Pacis Museum, RomeOne Grand Army Plaza, Brooklyn, NY, 2003-2008
University of Scranton, Connolly Hall, 2007
Ara Pacis Museum, Rome, Italy, 2006 (There has been talk of dismantling and relocating the museum since the election of Gianni Alemanno in 2008)
The Atheneum, New Harmony, Indiana, 1979
Barcelona Museum of Contemporary Art, Barcelona, Spain, 1995
Bronx Developmental Center, The Bronx, New York, 1976
Camden Medical Centre, Singapore, 1998
White Plaza, Basel, Switzerland, 1998
City Hall and Central Library, The Hague, The Netherlands, 1995
ECM City Tower, Prague, Czech republic, 2004-2007
Daimler-Benz Forschungszentrum, today: Daimler Forschungszentrum, Ulm, Germany, 1992
Douglas House, Harbor Springs, Michigan, 1973
Edinburgh Park masterplan, 1995
Frieder Burda Museum, Baden Baden, Germany, 2004
Getty Center, Los Angeles, California, 1997
Crystal Cathedral Welcoming Center, Garden Grove, California, 2003[6]
High Museum of Art, Atlanta, Georgia, 1983
Jubilee Church, Rome, Italy 2003
Weill Hall, Ithaca, New York, 2008
Meier Tower, Tel Aviv, Israel (2008-present)
Modern Art Wing Des Moines Art Center, Des Moines, Iowa, 1984
Museum of Television & Radio, Beverly Hills, California, 1996
Rachofsky House, Dallas, Texas, 1996
Sandra Day O’Connor United States Courthouse, Phoenix, Arizona, 2000
San Jose City Hall, San Jose, California, 2004-2007
Smith House, Darien, Connecticut, 1965-1967
Stadthaus, Ulm, Germany, 1994


Earthquake Resistant Wood Structure – Kobe Japan

In the worlds largest-ever earthquake simulation held this week in Japan, a full-scale, six-story condominium building made from wood atop a single-story of steel got good marks from researchers for stability and safety after being shaken for 40 seconds in a simulated 7.5 magnitude earthquake.
The results demonstrated that wood-frame buildings can be built to withstand major earthquakes and will help researchers validate new design methods for mid-rise, wood-framed buildings in urban, earthquake-prone areas. The advances ultimately will improve the construction and safety of wood buildings in the U.S. and around the world.
This weeks test confirms what we know to be true about woods strength for use in disaster-prone areas. Along with woods renewability, low life-cycle environmental impacts, and ability to sequester carbon, wood provides the optimal combination of green building and stability for earthquake-prone areas, said Robert Glowinski, Group Vice President for Forestry and Wood Products. Moving forward we can take invaluable information from this test to provide new safe wood building options for earthquake zones, as well as for other applications. Construction innovations are continually demonstrating the flexibility and superiority of wood and this research reinforces that.
Conducted in Miki City, near Kobe, Japan, on the worlds largest earthquake shake table at Japans National Research Institute for Earth Science and Disaster Prevention, the simulation was sponsored by the National Science Foundation and conducted by researchers from Colorado State University, along with advisors from industry and academia. American Forest & Paper Associations wood engineering staff served on the advisory committee to the project and AF&PAs Tokyo staff provided local support.


“St. Peter’s, the most magnificent church in Christendom and the fruit of many talents, soars triumphantly above the Vatican Hill. For nearly 150 years, a succession of popes entertained the idea of glorifying the shrine of their patron saint.”

— John Julius Norwich, ed. Great Architecture of the World. p153.

“The medal by Caradosso (1506) and the partial plan drawn by Bramante (in the Uffizi, Florence), probably represent the earliest stage of the design, before the difficulties appeared which obliged the architect and his successors to propose, and in some cases implement, numerous changes. These changes related not only to the general conception of the plan—first a Greek cross, then a Latin one—but also to the plan of the transepts, which at one time were to have ambulatories; to the role of the Orders, first purely decorative (Bramante), then structural (Raphael, Michelangelo); and to the construction and shape of the dome, first with a single masonry shell (Bramante), then a double one (Sangallo, Michelangelo). The piers at the crossing, which were intended to support the dome, were one of the biggest problems; too slender in Bramante’s plan, they were frequently reinforced… In the 17th century further important modifications were made by Bernini when he created the great colonnade that encircles the Piazza San Pietro.”

— John Julius Norwich, ed. The World Atlas of Architecture. p276.


The brick dome 138 feet in diameter rises 452 feet above the street, and 390 feet above the floor, with four iron chains for a compression ring. Four internal piers each 60 feet square.The dome is 452 ft high (above the pavement) and is buttressed by the apses and supported internally by four massive piers more than 18 meters (60 feet) thick.

— taken from John Julius Norwich, ed. Great Architecture of the World. p153.

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June 2018
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