Archive for the 'Walter Gropius' Category

12
Feb
10

Walter Gropius

Walter Adolph Georg Gropius (May 18, 1883 – July 5, 1969) was a German architect and founder of the Bauhaus School who, along with Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Le Corbusier, is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of modern architecture.

Walter Gropius, like his father and his great-uncle Martin Gropius before him, became an architect. Gropius could not draw, and was dependent on collaborators and partner-interpreters throughout his career. In school he hired an assistant to complete his homework for him. In 1908 Gropius found employment with the firm of Peter Behrens, one of the first members of the utilitarian school. His fellow employees at this time included Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, Le Corbusier, and Dietrich Marcks.

In 1910 Gropius left the firm of Behrens and together with fellow employee Adolf Meyer established a practice in Berlin. Together they share credit for one of the seminal modernist buildings created during this period: the Faguswerk in Alfeld-an-der-Leine, Germany, a shoe last factory. Although Gropius and Meyer only designed the facade, the glass curtain walls of this building demonstrated both the modernist principle that form reflects function and Gropius’s concern with providing healthful conditions for the working class. Other works of this early period include the office and factory building for the Werkbund Exhibition (1914) in Cologne.

In 1913, Gropius published an article about “The Development of Industrial Buildings,” which included about a dozen photographs of factories and grain elevators in North America. A very influential text, this article had a strong influence on other European modernists, including Le Corbusier and Erich Mendelsohn, both of whom reprinted Gropius’s grain elevator pictures between 1920 and 1930.

Gropius’s career was interrupted by the outbreak of World War I in 1914. Called up immediately as a reservist, Gropius served as a sergeant major at the Western front during the war years, and was wounded and almost killed.

Important buildings

Gropius House (1938) in Lincoln, Massachusetts1910–1911 the Fagus Factory, Alfeld an der Leine, Germany
1914 Office and Factory Buildings at the Werkbund Exhibition, 1914, Cologne, Germany
1921 Sommerfeld House, Berlin, Germany designed for Adolf Sommerfeld
1922 competition entry for the Chicago Tribune Tower competition
1925–1932 Bauhaus School and Faculty, Housin, Dessau, Germany
1936 Village College, Impington, Cambridge, England
1937 The Gropius House, Lincoln, Massachusetts, USA
1942–1944 Aluminum City Terrace housing project, New Kensington, Pennsylvania, USA
1949–1950 Harvard Graduate Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA (The Architects’ Collaborative)
1945–1959 Michael Reese Hospital, Chicago, Illinois, USA – Master planned 37-acre site and led the design for at least 8 of the approx. 28 buildings.
1957–1960 University of Baghdad, Baghdad, Iraq
1963–1966 John F. Kennedy Federal Office Building, Boston, Massachusetts, USA
1948 Peter Thacher Junior High School,
1958–1963 Pan Am Building (now the Metlife Building), New York, with Pietro Belluschi and project architects Emery Roth & Sons
1957 Interbau Apartment blocks, Hansaviertel, Berlin, Germany, with The Architects’ Collaborative and Wils Ebert
1960 Temple Oheb Shalom (Baltimore, Maryland)
1961 The award-winning Wayland High School, Wayland, Massachusetts, USA
1959–1961 Embassy of the United States, Athens, Greece (The Architects’ Collaborative and consulting architect Pericles A. Sakellarios)
1967– 69 Tower East Shaker Heights, Ohio, this was Gropius’ last major project.
The building in Niederkirchnerstraße, Berlin, known as the Gropius-Haus is named for Gropius’ great-uncle, Martin Gropius, and is not associated with Bauhaus

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Walter_Gropius

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21
Dec
09

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, born Maria Ludwig Michael Mies (March 27, 1886 – August 17, 1969) was a German-American architect. He was commonly referred to and addressed by his surname, Mies, by his colleagues, students, writers, and others.

Ludwig Mies van der Rohe, along with Walter Gropius and Le Corbusier, is widely regarded as one of the pioneering masters of Modern architecture. Mies, like many of his post World War I contemporaries, sought to establish a new architectural style that could represent modern times just as Classical and Gothic did for their own eras. He created an influential 20th century architectural style, stated with extreme clarity and simplicity. His mature buildings made use of modern materials such as industrial steel and plate glass to define interior spaces. He strived towards an architecture with a minimal framework of structural order balanced against the implied freedom of free-flowing open space. He called his buildings “skin and bones” architecture. He sought a rational approach that would guide the creative process of architectural design, and is known for his use of the aphorisms “less is more” and “God is in the details”.

List of works
Canada
Toronto-Dominion Centre – Office Tower Complex, Toronto
Westmount Square – Office & Residential Tower Complex, Westmount
Nuns’ Island – 3 Residential towers and a filling station (closed), Montreal (c.1969)
Czech Republic
Tugendhat House – Residential Home, Brno
Germany
Riehl House – Residential Home, Potsdam (1907)
Peris House – Residential Home, Zehlendorf (1911)
Werner House – Residential Home, Zehlendorf (1913)
Urbig House – Residential Home, Potsdam (1917)
Kempner House – Residential Home, Charlottenburg (1922)
Eichstaedt House – Residential Home, Wannsee (1922)
Feldmann House – Residential Home, Wilmersdorf (1922)
Mosler House – Residential Home, Babelsberg (1926)
Weissenhof Estate – Housing Exhibition coordinated by Mies and with a contribution by him, Stuttgart (1927)
Haus Lange/Haus Ester – Residential Home and an art museum, Krefeld
New National Gallery – Modern Art Museum, Berlin
Mexico
Bacardi Office Building – Office Building, Mexico City
Spain
Barcelona Pavilion – World’s Fair Pavilion, Barcelona
United States
Cullinan Hall – Museum of Fine Arts, Houston
The Promontory Apartments – Residential Apartment Complex, Chicago
Martin Luther King, Jr. Memorial Library – District of Columbia Public Library, Washington, DC
Richard King Mellon Hall of Science – Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA (1968)
IBM Plaza – Office Tower, Chicago
Lake Shore Drive Apartments – Residential Apartment Towers, Chicago
Seagram Building – Office Tower, New York City
Crown Hall – College of Architecture, and other buildings, at the Illinois Institute of Technology
School of Social Services Administration, University of Chicago (1965)
Farnsworth House – Residential Home, Plano, Illinois
Chicago Federal Center
Dirksen Federal Building – Office Tower, Chicago
Kluczynski Federal Building – Office Tower, Chicago
United States Post Office Loop Station – General Post Office, Chicago
One Illinois Center – Office Tower, Chicago
One Charles Center – Office Tower, Baltimore, Maryland
Highfield House Condominium | 4000 North Charles – Condominium Apartments, Baltimore, Maryland
Colonnade and Pavilion Apartments – Residential Apartment Complex, Newark, New Jersey (1959)
Lafayette Park – Residential Apartment Complex, Detroit, Michigan (1963).[3]
Commonwealth Promenade Apartments – Residential Apartment Complex, Chicago (1956)
Caroline Weiss Law Building, Cullinan Hall (1958) and Brown Pavilion (1974) additions, Museum of Fine Art, Houston
American Life Building – Louisville, Kentucky (1973; completed after Mies’s death by Bruno Conterato)