Le Corbusier

Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris, who chose to be known as Le Corbusier (October 6, 1887 – August 27, 1965), was a Swiss-French architect, designer, urbanist, writer and also painter, who is famous for being one of the pioneers of what now is called Modern architecture or the International Style. He was born in Switzerland and became a French citizen in his 30s.

He was a pioneer in studies of modern high design and was dedicated to providing better living conditions for the residents of crowded cities. His career spanned five decades, with his buildings constructed throughout central Europe, India, Russia, and one each in North and South America. He was also an urban planner, painter, sculptor, writer, and modern furniture designer.

He was born as Charles-Édouard Jeanneret-Gris in La Chaux-de-Fonds, a small city in Neuchâtel canton in north-western Switzerland, in the Jura mountains, which is just five kilometres across the border from France. He attended a kindergarten that used Fröbelian methods.

Le Corbusier was attracted to the visual arts and studied at the La-Chaux-de-Fonds Art School under Charles L’Eplattenier, who had studied in Budapest and Paris. His architecture teacher in the Art School was the architect René Chapallaz, who had a large influence on Le Corbusier’s earliest houses.

In his early years he would frequently escape the somewhat provincial atmosphere of his hometown by travelling around Europe. About 1907, he travelled to Paris, where he found work in the office of Auguste Perret, the French pioneer of reinforced concrete. In 1908, He studied architecture in Vienna with Josef Hoffmann. Between October 1910 and March 1911, he worked near Berlin for the renowned architect Peter Behrens, where he might have met Ludwig Mies van der Rohe and Walter Gropius. He became fluent in German. Both of these experiences proved influential in his later career.

Later in 1911, he journeyed to the Balkans and visited Greece and Turkey, filling sketchbooks with renderings of what he saw, including many famous sketches of the Parthenon, whose forms he would later praise in his work Vers une architecture (1923) (Towards A New Architecture).

Major buildings and projects

The Open Hand Monument is one of numerous projects in Chandigarh, India designed by Le Corbusier
National Museum of Western Art in Tokyo, Japan
Centre Le Corbusier (Heidi Weber Museum) in Zürich-Seefeld (Zürichhorn)
A governmental building, Chandigarh, India
Villa Savoye1905: Villa Fallet, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland
1912: Villa Jeanneret-Perret, La Chaux-de-Fonds [1]
1916: Villa Schwob, La Chaux-de-Fonds
1923: Villa La Roche/Villa Jeanneret, Paris
1924: Pavillon de L’Esprit Nouveau, Paris (destroyed)
1924: Quartiers Modernes Frugès, Pessac, France
1925: Villa Jeanneret, Paris
1926: Villa Cook, Boulogne-sur-Seine, France
1927: Villas at Weissenhof Estate, Stuttgart, Germany
1928: Villa Savoye, Poissy-sur-Seine, France View on the map
1929: Armée du Salut, Cité de Refuge, Paris
1930: Pavillon Suisse, Cité Universitaire, Paris
1930: Maison Errazuriz, Chile
1931: Palace of the Soviets, Moscow, USSR (project)
1931: Immeuble Clarté, Geneva, Switzerland View on the map
1933: Tsentrosoyuz, Moscow, USSR
1936: Palace of Ministry of National Education and Public Health, Rio de Janeiro (as a consultant to Lucio Costa, Oscar Niemeyer and others)
1938: The “Cartesian” sky-scraper (project)
1945: Usine Claude et Duval, Saint-Dié-des-Vosges, France
1947–1952: Unité d’Habitation, Marseille, France View on the map, History of the Prefabricated Home
1948: Curutchet House, La Plata, Argentina
1949–1952: United Nations headquarters, New York City (Consultant)
1950–1954: Chapelle Notre Dame du Haut, Ronchamp, France View on the map
1951: Cabanon de vacances, Roquebrune-Cap-Martin
1951: Maisons Jaoul, Neuilly-sur-Seine, France
1951: Mill Owners’ Association Building, villa Sarabhai and villa Schodan, Ahmedabad, India
1952: Unité d’Habitation of Nantes-Rezé, Nantes, France View on the map
1952–1959: Buildings in Chandigarh, India
1952: Palace of Justice (Chandigarh)
1952: Museum and Gallery of Art (Chandigarh)
1953: Secretariat Building (Chandigarh)
1953: Governor’s Palace (Chandigarh)
1955: Palace of Assembly (Chandigarh)
1959: Government College of Arts (GCA) and the Chandigarh College of Architecture(CCA) (Chandigarh)
1956: Museum at Ahmedabad, Ahmedabad, India
1956: Saddam Hussein Gymnasium, Baghdad, Iraq
1957: Unité d’Habitation of Briey en Forêt, France
1957: National Museum of Western Art, Tokyo
1957: Maison du Brésil, Cité Universitaire, Paris
1957–1960: Sainte Marie de La Tourette, near Lyon, France (with Iannis Xenakis)
1957: Unité d’Habitation of Berlin-Charlottenburg, Flatowallee 16, Berlin View on the map
1957: Unité d’Habitation of Meaux, France
1958: Philips Pavilion, Brussels, Belgium (with Iannis Xenakis) (destroyed) at the 1958 World Expositon
1961: Center for Electronic Calculus, Olivetti, Milan, Italy
1961: Carpenter Center for the Visual Arts, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States
1964–1969: Firminy-Vert
1964: Unité d’Habitation of Firminy, France
1966: Stadium Firminy-Vert
1965: Maison de la culture de Firminy-Vert
1969: Church of Saint-Pierre, Firminy, France (built posthumously and completed under José Oubrerie’s guidance in 2006)
1967: Heidi Weber Museum (Centre Le Corbusier), Zurich



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